Happy Easter! What does Easter have to do with east?
Up until today as you posted your question, Fugendichter, I thought it was about the 'east' associated to the 'spring', as a Christian hero is reputed to have 'sprung' from his grave.
Now that I checked in dictionaries, it seems that both words have nothing but four letters in common. The word comes either from a teutonic goddess going by the name of Eostre, or a prehistoric pagan spring festival (we should go through the Old High German to learn more). Anyway we have to praise your country for getting a Easter vacation. (Given the way your name sounds, Fugendichter, I guess your are from Germany.)
Oh, it's very complicated to follow your thoughts. Why should the east be assosiated with the spring? In the east, Russia e.g. they have minus twenty degrees now, whereas in Spain or France, they have more than twenty degrees plus now, the spring therefore begins in the southwest of Europe.
Even Jesus had no idea that one of these days people all over the world would celebrate his believed resurrection on a Sunday in spring, called "Eastern". No idea at all. And he would be totally dumfounded having to learn that people celebrate his birthday on 24th of Dezember, the Celtic pagan celebration of solstice.
This is all on account of ancient Romans, accommodatiing the Teuton tribes by assigning Christian holy days to so-called "pagan" celebrations, in order to proselytise them toward Christian faith and therefore attaining might and influence. Taming the German tribes of those days was no easy task, but they succeeded, save a little, recalcitrant und intrepid village in back then Gaul.
Sorry, "Easter", not "Eastern"
Ok, I know, this doesn't answer the original question.
The East is, due the rotation of the Earth around it's axis, the place of sunrise. As a result, at every location of Earth people see the Sun rising in the East. It is as simple as that. (baffling for the non-scientific mind it might be that in Far East people are under the impression the Sun rises in America or somwehere in the Pacific Ocean).
Sunrise is considered a symbol of awakening life and especially for Christian of resurrection, and the Old Germanic word for the place of sunrise, the East, was therefore chosen for the name for the "anniversary" of Jesus believed ressurection.
Now it feels good! Thank you. I caught it.
Eastern : east earn : a lot of money from east... joking of course !